Few studies have investigated the interaction between intestinal T cells with metabolites. Researchers have now shown in mice CD4+ T effector (Teff) cells upregulate the protein Mdr1 in the ileum to maintain homeostasis in the presence of the metabolite bile acid. Mice lacking Mdr1 display mucosal dysfunction and induce Crohn’s disease-like ileitis. Their findings suggest that T cell adaptation to enterohepatic bile acid circulation in the ileum safeguards intestinal homeostasis.

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