Michelson-Morley experiment results may be interpreted by assuming the equivalence of all inertial frames of reference and constancy of the speed of light in most bodies. Albert Einstein showed this in 1905. The special theory of relativity has totally removed the usage of ether and suggested that mass and energy are equal and that the speed of light is the maximum rate for several bodies possessing mass.

A mathematical conceptualization where space and time were combined in a four-dimensional-geometry of spacetime was coded by ‘Herman Minkowski’ in 1908. Theory, Einstein demonstrated the link between acceleration and gravitation expanding his theory to accelerated frames of reference in 1916. Exclusion for this is Newton’ mechanics; that was valid as an approximation for small-scale rates in comparison to that of light.

The disagreement originated by Michelson and Morley about the electromagnetic occurrences was worked out by relativity. There was an other theoretical issue lurking with relation to the explanation of the distribution of electromagnetic radiation emission from a black body: experiment results cleared that toward the ultraviolet end of the spectrum, at shorter wavelengths, energy approached zero in contrast to established theory’s boundless energy.

The ether theory has solved this, ultraviolet disaster, dilemma in 1900. Einstein used this quantum theory to elucidate the photoelectric effect in 1905, and Niels Bohr described the equilibrium of Rutherford’s nuclear atom in 1913. The newest quantum mechanics developed and used by Louis de Broglie, Werner Heisenberg, Wolfgang Pauli, Erwin Schrodinger, and others became an essential tool in the analyzation of happenings at the atomic level.



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